Elephantorrhiza elephantina is used in southern Africa as traditional remedy for a wide range of human diseases and ailments including dermatological diseases, gastrointestinal system disorders, sexual dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections, and wounds. ex B.D. Search results for: plant powders. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a member of Fabaceae or Leguminosae family. Moraceae Flueggea virosa (Roxb. Might be: Elephantorrhiza elephantina var. Mabona et al. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a medicinally important plant whose roots are used to control gastrointestinal parasites in goats. The antioxidant activities demonstrated by E. elephantina rhizome extracts are probably due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolics . Willd.)  evaluated the antibacterial activities of aqueous, acetone, ethanol, and methanol root extracts of E. elephantina against bacteria that cause gastrointestinal infections, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysentery, Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri, and Shigella boydii, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of active extracts was determined by the microplate dilution assay. Introduction All ... the powder was packed in 2 l flasks, 1 litre 80% methanol added, and extraction allowed to take place for 3 days. A. Chev. Both extracts showed activity against Candida mycoderma at loadings lower than 15 μg. Authors: Muhammad Ghaffar Doggar, Farah.  validate their antibacterial effects as these two species are often used in combination as herbal medicines for treating microbial infections in southern Africa. The specimens were deposited at the Larry Leach Herbarium (UNIN) for authentication. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Ee) ... A little powder of plant specimen was mixed with Kbr salt using a mortar and pestle, and compressed into thin pellets. The efficacy for the two compounds measured via MIC values ranged between 0.13 and 0.63 mg/mL, while synergistic interactions were noted against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis with (FIC) values of 0.09 mg/mL and 0.50 mg/mL, respectively . The species exhibited antibacterial properties against all microorganisms tested and the authors assessed the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Mycobacterium aurum, where E. elephantina showed some activity with MIC value of 1.25 mg/mL . The highest levels of analytical quality control standards such as HPLC MS/MS were used to show batch to batch reproducibility. Benign Prostate Hyperplacia, Male Pattern Baldness, Acne Vulgaris. Similarly, Nciki et al. MNI-21: Elephantorrhiza burkei Benth. According to Maphosa et al. Therefore, in this study, the advances in traditional utilization, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety aspects of E. elephantina are systematically reviewed. Brenan leaves demonstrated antioxidant activities in several in vitro assays , revealing that the compound was a hydrogen donor, metal chelator, and free radical scavenger. The literature search was performed from March 2016 to January 2017 using electronic search engines such as Google and Google Scholar and publishing sites such as Elsevier, Science Direct, BioMed Central (BMC), and PubMed. Elephantorrhiza elephantina has been recorded in southern Africa, that is, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland, Lesotho, and South Africa. Unfortunately, no comprehensive review on this important plant species in southern Africa has been published, documenting the species’ biology, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties. Use of traditional plant-based medicines has been practiced for thousands of years worldwide, and it is Despite the long use of E. elephantina as herbal medicine in southern Africa to treat numerous human and animal diseases and ailments, the species is known to be harmful when used at an excessive dosage [3, 4, 48]. Prosopis elephantorrhiza Spreng. These records show high degree of consensus for the major diseases and ailments (Table 2) and imply high cross-cultural agreement among ethnomedicinal uses of E. elephantina throughout its distributional range. , Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 10.1080/0035919X.2016.1259687, 72 , 1, (75-84), (2016). Thirty six goats (18 Mpofu et al. (leaves) as remedy for sores. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. South Africa has the highest number of common or vernacular names (21 in total) followed by Botswana (seven), Namibia (five), and Zimbabwe with four names and the rest of the countries have either one or two names (Table 1). Mabona et al.  evaluated antibacterial activities of ethanol root extracts of E. elephantina against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus using the agar diffusion assay. 1. According to Dold and Cocks , the average price of E. elephantina per kg in the Eastern Cape province is R30.80 (US$3.60) and 108.80 kg is the mean quantity sold per trader per year. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is the type species of the genus, where the generic name “Elephantorrhiza” means “elephant root” and is based, most descriptively, on the large underground stem common to most members of the genus .  observed decreased respiratory rate at higher doses of 1600 mg/kg, and, in subacute tests, the root extract of E. elephantina caused an increase in white blood cells, monocytes, and serum levels of creatinine at higher doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg. The petals are linear-oblong, 2–4 mm long and about 1 mm wide, and yellow-white in colour . But there is not yet enough data on ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical research on the species and few evaluations of target-organ toxicity have been documented. The tree is distributed in Tropical Africa (25).  evaluated the acute, subacute, and chronic toxicity of E. elephantina root extracts by oral route in male and female Wistar rats. Elephantorrhiza elephantina.  evaluated antifungal activities of aqueous and dichlomethane/methanol (1 : 1) extracts of E. elephantina using the microtitre plate dilution technique against dermatologically relevant pathogens such as Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with amphotericin B as positive control and acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as negative controls. This study carried out by Mpofu et al. Scientific studies on E. elephantina indicate that it has a wide range of biological activities including anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive, antiplasmodial, antioxidant, antibabesial, and antirickettsial activities.  assessed antibacterial activities of aqueous and dichlomethane/methanol (1 : 1) root extracts of E. elephantina while Mabona et al. & Hook.f. A total of 42 and 14 human and animal ailments and diseases, respectively, are treated by herbal medicines prepared from E. elephantina (Table 2). Tyasi T L and Tyasi A L 2015 The efficacy of Elephantorrhiza elephantina in the ethno-veterinary medicine for gastrointestinal parasites on goats: A review.  evaluated antifungal activities of root ethanol extracts of E. elephantina against Candida albicans and Candida mycoderma using the agar diffusion assay. delile subsp. This suggests that people still use plant-based herbal medicines for their basic health care. Aaku et al. , the rhizome of E. elephantina is mixed with roots of Boscia albitrunca (Burch.) Most of the phytochemical and pharmacological evaluations have focused on rhizomes and roots of E. elephantina. as remedy for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Skeels (UNIN 12297) and the whole plant excluding the roots of Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Roots or rhizome decoction of E. elephantina is taken orally as remedy for various ailments and diseases including anemia in Mozambique , blood pressure, clearing air canal, erectile dysfunction, haemorrhoids, itching, kidney failure, intestinal disorders, menstrual disorders, peptic ulcers, rheumatic conditions, shingles, sores, syphilis, and tonsillitis in South Africa [4, 12, 15, 31, 38, 44, 47, 48, 50]. 2017, Article ID 6403905, 18 pages, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6403905, 1Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa. Local people rarely name plant species that they do not use . Hello, My Name is Linda, I represent a group of Farmers and Wild Collectors. Elephantorrhiza elephantina had complete inhibition of larval development at a concentration of 1.25 mg/mL . Ethyl gallate 4 isolated from ethanol extract of Acacia nilotica Wild ex Del. The invention provides the use of an extract of a plant of the genus Elephantorrhiza and at least one compound selected from quercitin-3′-O-glucoside, trans-3-O-galloyl-3,3′,5,5′,7-pentahydroxyflavan, taxifolin-3′-O-glucoside, catechin and epicatechin in the preparation of a medicament for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Ehrlichia ruminantium cultures were incubated with acetone extracts of the leaves and results were compared to those obtained with oxytetracycline and untreated controls. Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth. The various populations show considerable variation in terms of the number of pinnae pairs and the number, size and shape of the leaflets. The authors evaluated anti-inflammatory activities using carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw oedema while antinociceptive activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin test.  an aqueous extract of the seed equivalent to 0,75 g produced extensive necrosis at the point of injection and gastroenteritis and pulmonary oedema when injected subcutaneously in the guinea-pig. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Evidence-Based … The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of the root extract of Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Rhizomes or bark of E. elephantina is crushed with some water added; the resulting paste is applied to hides to tan and dye them a reddish colour . Dosage form. from Elephantorrhiza elephantina and Pentanisia prunelloides as potential adjuvant/phytosome precursors. The author would like to express his gratitude to the National Research Foundation (NRF) and Govan Mbeki Research and Development Centre (GMRDC), University of Fort Hare, for financial support to conduct this research.  also assessed the antibacterial activities of E. elephantina against Escherichia coli. These results support the traditional use of E. elephantina in treating fungal infections associated with gastrointestinal tract infections. Roots were the most often sold suggesting it is the most used part. Free shipping BOTH ways on shoes, clothing, and more! Pax & Gilg (roots), Drimia delagoensis (Baker) Jessop (bulb), Sarcophyte sanguinea Sparm. Roots are also used to treat ethno-veterinary infections in cattle. Propionibacterium acnes is an important skin pathogen responsible for the chronic inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin . In Namibia, the pods of E. elephantina are eaten by both people and animals . It list herbs.  observed mild to moderate splenic siderosis, pulmonary granulomas, refractile crystal deposits, and associated ascending pyelonephritis. Skip to content. They produce unbranched and unarmed aerial stems of less than a metre tall. Macbr. Skeels: Herb: Roots: Mohauwane: Roots are used to treat sexually transmitted infections, blood purifier, eye infections and as a general medicine. Planch. der Fabales mit ca. (bark), Ranunculus multifidus (whole plant), Sarcophyte sanguinea ssp. Several classes of phytochemical compounds including anthocy… Mukanganyama et al. The dichlomethane/methane (1 : 1) leaf and root extracts showed weak activity with IC50 values of 26 and 28 μg/mL, respectively, while aqueous extracts for both leaves and roots showed weak activity with IC50 values >100 μg/mL . Guess six centimetres in diameter with annual branches of 20 to 60 centimetres are more correct although the related/subspecies; Elephantorrhiza burkii can grow to six metres. There is very little scientific information on indigenous plants used for medicinal purposes. 2618 Feasibility of BioMass Power Generation in Punjab Province of Pakistan. Maphosa et al. The aqueous extract of E. elephantina reduced the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and histamine and caused reduction in writhings in the acetic acid test and licking time in the formalin test .  were demonstrated by dichlomethane/methanol extracts against Candida albicans with MIC value of 130 μg/mL. The anti-inflammatory activity displayed by root extract of E. elephantina could be due to anthraquinone 38, as previous research by Mishchenko et al. Its leaves are alternate, bipinnately compound, almost glabrous with a petiole up to 8 cm long . A vernacular name often describes some characteristic feature of the plant species or the plant parts, for example, “eland’s bean” (an eland is an indigenous gazelle species); “elandsboontjie”; “eland’s wattle”; “elephant’s foot”; “elephant-root”; or “dwarf elephant’s root” (Table 1). Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Elephantorrhiza elephantina is known by several vernacular names in its geographical areas of occurrence (Table 1). Sapindaceae Jatropha curcas L. Euphorbiaceae Mainly water soluble, spray dried extracts using ‘soft conditions’ to preserve the integrity of the product. In this study, E. elephantina caused reduction of Trichuris eggs on days 3 and 6 at 250 mg/kg dose. MIC activities against the pathogens ranged between 0.08 and 0.63 mg/mL, and the highest inhibition was exhibited against Shigella flexneri with MIC values ranging from 0.08 to 0.16 mg/mL , and these findings somehow confirm the species’ antibacterial potential and its usefulness in the treatment and management of gastrointestinal infections.  and Mabona et al. Aaku et al. In the past 30 years, E. elephantina has been the subject of phytochemical and pharmacological research, and some of the traditional uses of this plant particularly against microbial infections and gastrointestinal parasites in animals have been validated by pharmacological studies. The plant is commonly called eland’s bean, eland’s wattle, and elephant’s root (Eng. The young shoots of E. elephantina are eaten by livestock and its seeds have a sweetish taste followed by a burning sensation and are often roasted in southern Africa as a coffee substitute . I will be discussing some of these plants in the upcoming workshop. Acacia elephantina Burch. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is usually widespread, often gregarious and forming huge patches in hot and dry areas in grasslands and open scrub . The rhizome or root decoction of E. elephantina is used to relieve abdominal pains in Lesotho and Zimbabwe [3, 24] and chest pains in South Africa  and applied to open wounds to stop bleeding . The young shoots of E. elephantina are eaten by livestock and wild animals in southern Africa . are used to treat eczema [36, 37]. Preliminary acute toxicity evaluation of root extract of E. elephantina using Wistar rats showed no physiological and behavioural changes in the animals and also no mortalities were recorded . Palmer & Pitman, Trees S. Afr. The rhizome decoction ofE.  also revealed that E. elephantina root decoction is taken orally in combination with Cladostemon kirkii (root), Drimia delagoensis (bulb), Ficus sur Forssk. In South Africa, E. elephantina is used as a traditional remedy for a wide range of ailments, including diarrhoea and dysentery, stomach disorders, skin diseases and acne, haemorrhoids, and perforated peptic ulcers and as emetics . Elephantorrhiza elephantina is used in southern Africa as traditional remedy for a wide range of human diseases and ailments including dermatological diseases, gastrointestinal system disorders, sexual dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections, and wounds. Traditionally Elephantorrhiza elephantina is used in Southern Africa for treating ailments with over utilisation of the roots, placing the plant on the Red Data List. The use of plant-based anthelmintics as potential alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics in controlling gastrointestinal worms in ruminants is a promising area of research. Elephantorrhiza elephantina. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the leaves of Commelina africana, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Dombeya rotundifolia, and the whole plant excluding the roots of Schkuhria pinnata indigenous medicinal plants from the Limpopo Province, which may be used for the treatment in humans infected with bacterial pathogens. Homonyms Elephantorrhiza elephantina Skeels Common names Elandsboontjie in language. The antibabesial drugs used as controls, imidocarb and diminazene, demonstrated efficacy, exhibiting EC50 values of 0.08 and 0.30 μg/mL, respectively. Some plants used for this by Indigenous healers are Synaptolepsis Kirki, Sylene capensis, Elephantorrhiza Elephantina, Agapanthus, Helinus integrifolius (soap plant), Rhus paucifloris , Hippobromus Paucifloris, Maesa Lanceolata, amongst many. Overall, results obtained by Nciki et al. The phytochemical studies of the rhizome extracts of E. elephantina carried out by Mpofu et al.  the best antifungal activities were demonstrated by dichlomethane/methanol leaf, root, and rhizome extracts against Microsporum canis with MIC value of 0.50 mg/mL while best antifungal results obtained by Nciki et al. Skeels (Fabaceae) were investigated using wistar rats. 1-800-927-7671 In either species the two pod valves will separate from their margin, which persists as a nearly continuous and empty frame, reminiscent of some Entada pods. It is found in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa, … Botanical extracts - Liquid. In another study, Maphosa and Masika  evaluated efficacy of E. elephantina aqueous root extracts in naturally mixed infections of gastrointestinal worms and Coccidia species in goats that had not been dosed for a period of two months, using Valbazen (11.36% albendazole) at 10 mg/kg and 0.5 mL/kg distilled water as positive and negative controls, respectively. Progress of research in treatment of hyperlipidemia by monomer or compound recipe of Chinese herbal medicine.. PubMed. Acetone rhizome extracts of E. elephantina demonstrated significant activity against a tick-borne disease that is problematic to the livestock of South African farmers .  evaluated antifungal activities of aqueous and dichlomethane/methanol (1 : 1) root extract of E. elephantina using the microtitre plate dilution technique against dermatologically relevant pathogens such as Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with amphotericin B as positive control. In addition to this, the perspectives for the future research on E. elephantina are also discussed in the hope that the article will provide a better understanding of the plant species. M. Gelfand, S. Mavi, R. B. Drummond, and B. Ndemera.  revealed that there were more extractable antioxidants using methanol compared to water as the solvent. See "Status", "Confidence level", "Source" for definitions. Fabaceae-Mimosoidae Faurea saligna Harvey Proteaceae Ficus sur Forssk. Pax & K. Hoffm. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is the type species of the genus, where the generic name "Elephantorrhiza" means "elephant root" and is based, most descriptively, on the large underground stem common to most members of the genus . It also gives the diseases for which it is best suited. Abstract Medicinal plants have been used as traditional treatments for numerous human diseases for thousands of years. Rhizome decoction of E. elephantina is widely used by small-scale farmers in Botswana and South Africa as ethnoveterinary medicine for poultry and retained placenta in cattle and as ethnoveterinary medicine for other animals such as goats, horses, pigs, and sheep and for diseases such as black quarter, appetite stimulant, coughing, diarrhoea, gastrointestinal parasites, gall sickness, heartwater, mange, pneumonia, and ectoparasites [22, 23, 27, 30, 33, 48, 52, 53]. Statistics are at the end of the page. ex DC.. Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth.. Prosopis elephantina (Burch.)  observed acute hepatitis, intracrystal deposition (reminiscent of oxalate crystals) with renal crystals and secondary ascending pyelonephritis in animals receiving 800 mg/kg in subacute toxicity tests while pulmonary granulomas were noted in animals which received 400 mg/kg. Phytochemical and ethnopharmacological review of Elephantorrhiza goetzei (Harms) Harms Alfred Maroyi* Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa A R TI C L E I N F O ABSTRACT Article history: Received 24 Nov 2016 Received in revised form 25 Dec 2016 Accepted 9 Jan 2017 Available online 20 Jan 2017 Elephantorrhiza goetzei (E. goetzei) … The objective of the study was to determine the effects of E. elephantina on coccidia oocysts and determine the effectiveness of the dose levels on goats. The leaf, root and rhizome extracts of E. elephantina are reported to be traditionally used to treat acne vulgaris and pimples and such usage was corroborated by noteworthy activity against Propionibacterium acnes with MIC values between 0.05 and 2.0 mg/mL . Synthetic anthelmintics in controlling gastrointestinal worms in ruminants is a medicinally important plant roots. A food supplement to soft porridge, or boiling the powder in water drinking... 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